We live in an era where not only data is involved but also the units or devices are also a paramount part of the ecosystem and the universe of interconnected devices known as the Internet of Things (IoT) exchanges data across wired or wireless networks. These gadgets could be micro size to mega size starting from laptops, smart electric appliances, smart office equipment, cellphones, or anything else that has sensors. These devices help in transporting the data to servers, either on-site or in the cloud where it is processed to produce insights that aid in decision-making. The IoT ecosystem can be developed across areas and industries such as real estate securities, academic campuses, and geographies, in addition to smaller spaces like our homes or offices.
We constantly use connected smart devices in our daily lives. It makes sense to comprehend the progress of IoT as a user or business owner offering IoT-related products and services. Knowing the past helps us predict the future and make the most of technology. The first online network, ARPANET, marked the beginning of the Internet of Things. The first linked gadget was a Coca-Cola vending machine at Carnegie Mellon University that connected to the campus ARPANET in 1982.
The foundation of the World Wide Web, suggested by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989, cleared the path for the internet of things. In 1990, John Romkey established a connection between a toaster and the internet, enabling remote control of the device. In the computer lab of the University of Cambridge, the Trojan Room Coffee Pot was constructed in 1993. Online viewers could see pictures of the pot.
IoT was first used by Kevin Ashton, the current head of MIT’s Auto-ID Labs, in 1999. It was a part of the common vocabulary by 2004. The inaugural IoT conference took place in Zurich in March 2008. It was one of the six disruptive civil technologies identified by the US National Intelligence Council in the same year.
IoT can be regarded to have begun in 2008-2009, when there were more things connected to the internet than people, according to a white paper published in 2011 by Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group. IoT was a part of the Gartner hype cycle for new technologies in 2011.
Architecture of IoT
Any IoT system, according to the definition of the term, consists of objects or devices that produce data, a network that transmits that data, and services that store and process it. These three layers can be considered to exist in an IoT system:
• Physical layers
Devices, sensors, and controllers make up the physical layer of the system. They are the fabric of the Internet of Things. Smartphones, tablets, computers, microchip-equipped items, and brownfield devices with RFID tags are some examples of devices.
• Edge computing layer
Edge computing is the practice of storing and processing data close to the devices where it is generated rather than on distant servers. The networks and communication protocols that will be used for connectivity and edge computing are specified by the edge computing layer. At the network’s edge, IoT data processing begins.
• Application layer
The action shifts to cloud computing after the edge computing layer. The application layer is a collection of incorporated services the IoT cloud offers to help users make sense of the data they have collected.
IoT device data is cleaned before being saved on cloud servers where it is processed further to produce reports and insights. On top of the resources offered by cloud service providers, businesses can have their own unique apps developed.
Once an IoT ecosystem is established, additional devices are continuously added to it as needed. Rapid network scalability is necessary to accommodate the increase in linked devices. Different internet protocols are needed as various device types connect across various networks.
ZigBee, Z-wave, Wi-Fi, Li-Fi, NFC, 5G, BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy), IETF 6LoWPAN, IETF’s CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol), etc. are a few of the protocols utilized.
IoT’s economic benefits
By 2025, the economic value of IoT might range from USD 3.9 trillion to 11.2 trillion, according to McKinsey. Given the application of IoT in industries including manufacturing, healthcare, automotive, public safety, logistics, energy management, organizational redesign, etc., this forecast does not appear overly optimistic.
IoT is used by a wide range of enterprises and industries, and the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated adoption because it offers the possibility for companies.
Future of IoT
By 2025, Statista projects that there will be 75.4 billion installed connected devices worldwide and it would represent a five-fold increase from 2015. According to these figures, IoT promises to be more innovative and revolutionary in the future than it is now. It was inevitable that more and more industries would use IoT.
Let’s talk about some of the trends that will transform the IoT:
1. Integration of 5G
Many businesses have already tested 5G ahead of the 2020 5G integration. IoT architecture will include 5G in both new and legacy systems. The capabilities of current networks would be greatly improved by 5G. The existing network will not be replaced by 5G, but rather its capabilities will be increased. Whether it is new or old, 5G would allow for incredibly fast data transmission to the cloud server.
2. Single interface
As was previously mentioned, every second a new device with a wide range of capabilities joins the IoT networks. Users, whether they are individuals or businesses, would need a single interface that gives them end-to-end access rather than a collection of remotes and interfaces.
3. Multi-level privacy and security
Security and privacy of data will become increasingly crucial. In the past, data security was implemented at the device level, whether it was a laptop, smartphone, or other smart device linked to the IoT network. But in the future, several layers of security and privacy protection will be put in place between IoT endpoints.
4. Ecosystem shift from products to services
Any IoT system’s primary engine is its data production. Companies that currently offer products would progressively transition to services built around data insights.
Three technologies — cloud computing, big data, and artificial intelligence — have advanced at a prompt rate, supporting the IoT’s explosive expansion. IoT appears to have a bright future. By enabling high-speed transmission capabilities for both new and current IoT networks, 5G is poised to significantly disrupt the IoT.
Businesses will integrate data privacy and security strategy right from the design phase and execute it at numerous levels across the IoT architectural layers in response to growing security concerns. As IoT systems generate a growing amount of data over the next ten years, product firms will begin to move towards a services ecosystem. IoT consulting, IoT product design, mobile app development, IoT dashboards, and IoT testing are all services that the Tech Ahead team of IoT experts is skilled at offering.
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